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Derek Chauvin guilty of murder in George Floyd's death

The death of George Floyd, a 46-year-old Black man, touched off international protests against police brutality and racial injustice.

MINNEAPOLIS — Derek Chauvin was found guilty on all counts Tuesday for causing George Floyd's death, a verdict that could send the disgraced former Minneapolis police officer to prison for the rest of his life.

His eyes darted left and right over his light blue surgical mask as Judge Peter Cahill read the jury's verdict, but he betrayed little else in the way of emotion.

Chauvin, who was convicted of second- and third-degree murder, as well as second-degree manslaughter, stood up quickly after the judge ordered his bail revoked and compliantly placed his hands to be handcuffed before he was led out of the courtroom. He faces up to 75 years in prison when he returns for sentencing in eight weeks. However, under Minnesota law, the sentences are likely to run concurrently, meaning Chauvin would serve no more than 40 years in prison.

Defense attorney Eric Nelson followed Chauvin out of the courtroom without comment. Chauvin was booked into the Oak Park Heights state prison. He arrived at 4:55 p.m.

Conviction on the top count of second-degree murder means the 12 jurors unanimously agreed that Chauvin caused Floyd's death during the commission of a felony assault. The jury rejected the defense claim that there might have been other medical reasons Floyd died, saying Chauvin killed him, even if unintentionally, by kneeling on his neck for more than nine minutes.

Follow our live blog on Derek Chauvin's conviction on murder charges

"Today, we are able to breathe again," Floyd's brother Philonise Floyd said afterward.

Outside the courthouse in downtown Minneapolis, which had been enclosed with razor wire, the crowd erupted into cheers when word of the verdict filtered out. Many said they feared the jury would not convict a white police officer of killing Floyd, who was Black.

"All three counts! All three counts!" the crowd chanted as cars honked and people danced on the blocked off streets, some of them waving Black Lives Matter flags and carrying signs that said "Justice for George Floyd."

1618959993317_nn_ral_verdict_reaction_210420_1920x1080.jpg

Jennifer Ramirez, 24, who lives in Minneapolis, headed to the Hennepin County Government Center before the verdict was announced.

"I hope Chauvin gets as much time in prison as possible, because he deserves it," Ramirez said as she sat across the street, her mother and her brother by her side. "Maybe it will set a precedent for other police in the area and maybe nationwide. Hopefully this leads to change."

Another celebration was underway a few miles away outside Cup Foods, the store where Chauvin killed Floyd by pinning his neck to the pavement with his knee for 9½ minutes on May 25. Video of the tragedy, which captured Floyd crying out "I can't breathe" over and over again, sparked nationwide outrage and some of the biggest civil rights demonstrations in decades.

Earlier, the Floyd family got a congratulatory call from President Joe Biden and Vice President Kamala Harris.

"We're all so relieved," Biden told the family. "We're going to get a lot more done."

"This is a day of justice," Harris chimed in.

Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison, whose office oversaw Chauvin's prosecution, commended the bystanders who tried to intervene, saying they were a "bouquet of humanity," a phrase prosecutor Jerry Blackwell had used during the trial to describe the group who witnessed Floyd's final moments.

"I would not call today's verdict justice, however, because justice implies true restoration," Ellison said. "But it is accountability, which is the first step toward justice."

"George Floyd mattered," Ellison said.

Before the verdict was announced, tensions had been high in the Twin Cities and in the nearby suburb of Brooklyn Center, where on April 11 a white police officer killed another Black man named Daunte Wright after a traffic stop.

The jury, which began deliberating Monday after three weeks of witness testimony, took about 10 hours to reach the unanimous verdict.

Second-degree murder carries a maximum sentence of 40 years. Third-degree murder carries a maximum sentence of 25 years. Second-degree manslaughter is punishable by up to 10 years.

The third-degree murder charge had initially been dismissed, but it was reinstated after an appeals court ruling in an unrelated case established new grounds for it days before jury selection started.

Prosecutors argued that Chauvin's actions caused Floyd to die from low oxygen, or asphyxia. The defense claimed that Floyd's illegal drug use and a pre-existing heart condition were to blame and urged jurors not to rule out other theories, as well, including exposure to carbon monoxide.

During closing arguments, prosecutors sought to focus jurors' attention on the 9 minutes, 29 seconds they say Chauvin knelt on Floyd's neck, while Chauvin's defense attorney told them that "the 9 minutes and 29 seconds ignores the previous 16 minutes and 59 seconds" of the interaction.

Image: Murder trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin
Former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin is led away in handcuffs after a jury found him guilty of second- and third-degree murder and manslaughter in George Floyd's death.Pool via Reuters

Prosecutors called 38 witnesses, including Darnella Frazier, the teenager who recorded the widely seen bystander video that brought global attention to Floyd's death. She and other bystanders who testified said that they are haunted by Floyd's death and that they wish they had done more to try to save his life. The defense called seven witnesses, two of whom were experts.

Chauvin had agreed to plead guilty to third-degree murder days after Floyd's death, but William Barr, then the U.S. attorney general, rejected the deal because, officials said, he was worried that it was too early in the investigation and that it would be perceived as too lenient.

Floyd's death touched off international protests against police brutality and racial injustice. The city of Minneapolis had spent months preparing for the trial and for the potential of unrest over the verdict.

Janelle Griffith reported from Minneapolis. Corky Siemaszko reported from Montclair, New Jersey.

Trial of Derek Chauvin

23-12-2021 · 2021 murder trial in the U.S. state of Minnesota State v. ChauvinCourt

23-12-2021
2021 murder trial in the U.S. state of Minnesota
Minnesota-StateSeal.svgState v. ChauvinCourtFourth Judicial District Court of MinnesotaFull case nameState of Minnesota v. Derek Michael Chauvin SubmittedMay 29, 2020DecidedApril 20, 2021 (2021-04-20)VerdictDerek Chauvin found guilty on all three chargesProsecutionKeith Ellison (Attorney General)[1][2]
Erin Eldridge[2]
Jerry Blackwell[2]
Matthew Frank (lead)[2]
Steve Schleicher[2]DefenseEric NelsonCitation(s)27-CR-20-12646Legislation citedMinnesota Statutes §§ 609.19.2(1) (Murder in the Second Degree—Unintentional);
609.195(a) (Murder in the Third Degree);
609.205(1) (Manslaughter in the Second Degree)Case historyRelated action(s)
  • MN v. Thao 27-CR-20-12949
  • MN v. Lane 27-CR-20-12951
  • MN v. Kueng 27-CR-20-12953
Court membershipJudge(s) sittingPeter A. Cahill[3]

State of Minnesota v. Derek Michael Chauvin is an American criminal case in the District Court of Minnesota in which former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin was tried and convicted of the murder of George Floyd during an arrest on May 25, 2020. Chauvin was found guilty of second-degree unintentional murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter; the first charge could have carried a maximum penalty of 40 years in prison. This sentence was the longest Chauvin could be incarcerated for. It was the first conviction of a white officer in Minnesota for the murder of a black person. On June 25, 2021, Chauvin was sentenced to 22.5 years in prison for the second-degree murder.

The trial was held at the Hennepin County Government Center in Minneapolis, and it ran from March 8, 2021, through April 20. It was the first criminal trial in Minnesota to be entirely televised and the first in state court to be broadcast live. The trial received extensive media coverage, with over 23 million people watching the verdict being announced on live television.

Background

Murder of George Floyd

Main article: Murder of George Floyd

Derek Chauvin was one of four officers of the Minneapolis Police Department (MPD) involved in the arrest of George Floyd on May 25, 2020, on suspicion of using a counterfeit bill at a market. He also served as the field training officer for one of the other officers involved.[4] While Floyd was handcuffed and lying facedown on the street, Chauvin knelt on Floyd's neck for nine minutes and 29 seconds.[5] For part of the time, two other officers knelt on Floyd's back.[6] During the final two[7] minutes, Floyd was motionless and had no pulse.[8]

A reading of the initial police report shows no mention of Floyd's treatment when he was arrested. The misleading report reads, a "medical incident during police interaction." Many believe Chauvin would never have been convicted if the mobile phone video taken by Darnella Frazier had not surfaced.[9][10] Minnesota Governor Tim Walz publicly thanked Frazier saying, "Taking that video, I think many folks know, is maybe the only reason that Derek Chauvin will go to prison".[11]

Two autopsies found Floyd's death to be a homicide.[12] At the time of his murder, Floyd also had recovered from COVID-19 and suffered from heart disease, and had fentanyl and methamphetamine in his system.[13]

Arrest, charges, and bail

May 29, 2020, initial criminal complaint against Chauvin

Chauvin was arrested on May 29, 2020,[14] and initially charged with third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter,[15][16] making him the first white police officer in Minnesota to be charged with murdering a black civilian.[17][18] On June 3, charges were amended to include second-degree murder, specifically unintentional second-degree murder while attempting to commit felony assault.[19][20][21] Chauvin was released on conditional bail on October 7, 2020 after posting a bond of

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million.[22][23] Court documentation provided that his release was supervised and would be forfeited if he declined to appear before a magistrate, refused to appear in court on scheduled dates, left the state of Minnesota without court approval, or had contact with Floyd's family.[24]

Pre-trial proceedings

On August 29, 2020, Chauvin's attorneys filed a motion to dismiss the case, claiming that Floyd most likely died as a result of drug use and preexisting medical conditions. On the same day, prosecutors moved to increase potential sentences for the four officers beyond the guidelines for all four accused, arguing that Floyd was vulnerable while being held down on the ground in handcuffs and was treated cruelly.[25][26][27]

On November 12, 2020, Judge Cahill initially ruled that Chauvin and the other three officers would be tried together.[28][29] On January 11, 2021, Cahill reversed this ruling such that this case only involves the trial of Chauvin, separate from the other officers.[30]

On October 22, 2020, Cahill dismissed the third-degree murder charge, but not the second-degree unintentional murder and second-degree manslaughter charges.[31][32] On March 11, 2021, on appeal, Cahill reinstated the third-degree murder charge against Chauvin.[33][34] The decision came after the Minnesota Supreme Court on March 10, denied the defense's petition for review of a Court of Appeals decision requiring Cahill to reconsider reinstating the charge.[34][35]

On March 19, 2021, after considering that drugs discovered in the SUV where Floyd was detained were confirmed to contain his DNA, Cahill allowed the defense to present limited evidence from Floyd's May 2019 arrest (when he resisted officers and swallowed drugs, leading to dangerously high blood pressure), disallowed a forensic psychiatrist the prosecution wanted to testify that Floyd was acting like a normal scared person during the arrests, and dismissed a motion to postpone the trial in light of the civil settlement's publicity.[36]

Trial

Judge and attorneys

Attorney General Keith Ellison

Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presided over the case.[3] Cahill has been a judge since 2007 and previously worked as both a public defender and prosecutor.[3]

On May 31, 2020, Governor Tim Walz announced that Attorney General Keith Ellison would lead the prosecution instead of County Attorney Michael O. Freeman.[3] Freeman was the subject of protests and was later disqualified from working on the case.[37][38] Ellison was usually present in the courtroom but did not take part in making legal arguments.[1]

The prosecution team included Minnesota Assistant Attorney General Matthew Frank, serving as the lead prosecutor, Jerry W. Blackwell, Steven Schleicher, and Erin Eldridge.[3][2] Ellison brought in a team of attorneys from Hogan Lovells after Georgetown Law School Professor Neal Katyal, a former acting Solicitor General of the United States, offered to assist in crafting strategy and motions.[39] Katyal said that Ellison invited the mother of Eric Garner to the prosecution's daily meeting and that her presence highlighted how the Chauvin case was also an effort "to achieve a measure of justice for all the Black families who have lost loved ones to police violence but never saw a courtroom."[40] Blackwell, a civil rights and corporate torts attorney, joined the prosecution team pro bono. He is known for his ability to present complex legal issues in plain English to jurors.[41] Chauvin was represented by defense attorney Eric Nelson, compensated by the Minneapolis Police and Peace Officers Association, which provides services to its members.[3] Nelson is one of a dozen lawyers assigned in rotation for current and former members requiring job-related legal services.[42]

Jury

On December 22, 2020, prospective jurors in Hennepin County were mailed a questionnaire asking about their views on the criminal justice system, the police, and social movements.[43][44] The questionnaire also asked prospective jurors to disclose how many times they viewed videos of Floyd's murder and whether they participated in the George Floyd protests.[43][44]

The trial was held at the Hennepin County Government Center in Minneapolis.[43] On March 8, 2021, jury selection was delayed until at least March 9, pending consideration of the third-degree murder charge against Chauvin.[45] Jury selection began on that day, with the third-degree murder issue still unresolved by the Court of Appeals.[46] During jury selection, prospective jurors were questioned about their views on Black Lives Matter, Blue Lives Matter, and defunding the police.[47][48] Jurors were also questioned about Minneapolis' million settlement with Floyd's family, with two seated jurors excused after news of the settlement changed their ability to be impartial.[47] Some potential jurors expressed fear of retribution if they were to return an unpopular verdict.[49][50] Twelve anonymous jurors and three alternates were seated as of March 23, with six white, four black, and two multi-racial jurors selected.[47][34] On the third day of trial, a juror had a "stress-related reaction" but declined medical attention.[51]

Opening statements

Fencing erected around the Hennepin County Government Center in preparation for the trial

Opening statements from the prosecution and the defense were heard on March 29, 2021.[45] Prosecutor Jerry Blackwell started opening statements saying that "Mr. Chauvin betrayed his badge" while defense attorney Eric Nelson said that "Chauvin did exactly what he had been trained to do".[52]

Prosecution case

The prosecution began its case on March 29, 2021,[52] and rested on April 13 after 11 days of testimony from 38 witnesses.[53]

Prosecution witnesses

About 400 people were included on a list of prospective trial witnesses,[54] but only 38 were called on to testify.[55] The prosecution's witnesses were:

  • Jena Scurry, a 911 dispatcher who received the call about Floyd using a counterfeit bill; she viewed Floyd's arrest via live video, and was concerned about the manner of his arrest, leading her to call a police sergeant about the arrest.[56]
  • Alisha Oyler, a bystander who filmed Floyd's murder.[57]
  • Donald Williams II, a bystander and professional MMA fighter,[58][59] who testified that Chauvin's kneeling on Floyd's neck was applying a "blood choke",[60] that Chauvin was "shimmying to actually get the final choke in" on Floyd, that the arrest procedure was "torture",[61] and that he called 911 on Chauvin because he believed he had "witnessed a murder".[62]
  • Darnella Frazier and three other underage witnesses who witnessed Floyd's murder testified off-camera. Frazier is the witness who recorded the widely circulated video that challenged the initial police report.[63][64] She testified that Floyd was "terrified, scared, begging for his life", and saying "I can't breathe", while Chauvin "just stared at us" with "this cold look".[65]
  • Genevieve Hansen, a bystander and EMT-certified firefighter of the Minneapolis Fire Department (MFD), who witnessed Floyd's condition and wanted to treat him but was not allowed.[66][67] Hansen said she saw that Floyd "had an altered state of consciousness", because he was not responding to the "painful stimuli" of Chauvin's knee on his neck. She wanted to check Floyd for consciousness, start chest compressions, as well as render other medical attention, but was denied access to Floyd by the police.[68]
  • Christopher Martin, an employee at Cup Foods who allegedly received the counterfeit bill from Floyd.[69] Martin said "it would appear that [Floyd] was high" but that he was able to talk and communicate.[70]
  • Christopher Belfrey, a bystander parked behind Floyd's SUV who began recording a video after seeing officer Lane point a gun at Floyd.[55]
  • Charles McMillian, a bystander who had a conversation with Floyd when Floyd was in the police car.[71]
  • Lt. Jeff Rugel, head of the MPD's business technology unit, who was familiar with police body camera footage.[55][72]
  • Courteney Ross, Floyd's girlfriend,[73] who testified that Floyd struggled with an opioid addiction after using opioids to treat back pain, that he had once been hospitalized for an overdose, and that she was in the car with a supplier at the time of his arrest.[74] She cried while describing her relationship with Floyd.[75]
  • Seth Bravinder and Derek Smith, Hennepin paramedics who responded to the scene of Floyd's murder and testified that they saw no signs of breathing or movement by Floyd when they arrived, that they detected no heartbeat once they were allowed access to Floyd, and that they failed to resuscitate Floyd.[76] Smith said that when they arrived, he believed Floyd was already dead.[76]
  • Capt. Jeremy Norton of the MFD, who responded to the scene and reported what happened to his supervisors. Norton said he "was worried that a man had been killed in police custody".[55]
  • Ret. Sgt. David Pleoger, a police supervisor. 911 dispatcher Scurry called him to report her concern about the arrest. Pleoger arrived at the scene after Floyd was taken away in an ambulance.[77] Pleoger testified that the arresting officers "could have ended their restraint" of Floyd once he stopped resisting them while handcuffed on the ground.[77]
  • Sgt. Jon Edwards of the MPD, who testified that he responded to the crime scene, told Lane and Keung to turn on their body cameras, and attempted to interview witnesses.[55][78]
  • Lt. Richard Zimmerman, an MPD homicide investigator and its most senior officer.[79] Zimmerman testified that Chauvin's kneeling on Floyd's neck for an extended period of time was "totally unnecessary" and that such a move "can kill". Zimmerman further testified that once suspects are handcuffed, "the threat level goes down all the way", and the police "need to get them out of the prone position as soon as possible because it restricts their breathing".[79]
  • Bradford Wankhede Langenfeld, the Emergency Medicine resident physician at Hennepin County Medical Center who pronounced Floyd dead.[55] He testified that for any person whose heart had stopped (like Floyd), the chance of survival decreases by 10%–15% every minute that cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not attempted.[80]
  • Medaria Arradondo, chief of the MPD.[81] Arradondo testified that Chauvin violated department policy, training and ethics by continuing to restrain Floyd in that manner at various stages: when Floyd had ceased resisting, was "no longer responsive", and was "motionless". Alongside citing the "sanctity of life" and the "duty of care", Arradondo added that Chauvin had violated department policy by not deescalating the situation when possible, and by not providing immediate medical attention to Floyd.[81][82]
  • Inspector Katie Blackwell, who was the commander of the MPD's training division at the time of Floyd's murder.[81] Blackwell testified that MPD policy was to train officers to use their arms to carry out a neck restraint on a suspect, instead of using an officer's knee like Chauvin did. She also testified that during the entirety of Chauvin's tenure with the department, MPD officers "were taught about positional asphyxia", and hence instructed to move suspects onto their sides "as soon as possible" once they are "under control".[83]
  • Sgt. Ker Yang, an MPD crisis trainer who explained that listening is key to crisis intervention and that officers "shall de-escalate" when "it is safe and feasible".[55]
  • Lt. Johnny Mercil, the state's expert on MPD use-of-force policy and training, testified that officers are trained to use the least amount of force to get control of a suspect and to de-escalate their restraint once the suspect is under control. He also said kneeling on Floyd's neck violated police policy, ethics, and training.[84]
  • Officer Nicole Mackenzie, medical support coordinator, is the state's MPD expert on medical issues. Defense attorney Nelson questioned her about agonal breathing which she explained as ineffective irregular gasps for air. Nelson questioned as to whether it can be confused with effective breathing during "certain circumstances where there's a lot of noise, or a lot of commotion". She replied in the affirmative but under further questioning by the prosecution when asked if a hostile crowd could excuse an officer from giving emergency medical aid Mackenzie replied, yes but only "if an officer was being physically assaulted". She also testified that even if a person can speak it does not suggest that they are breathing adequately.[85]
  • Sergeant Jody Stiger of the Los Angeles Police Department, a national expert on use-of-force by police.[86] Stiger testified that the video showed Chauvin not changing the force he applied to Floyd's neck area during the restraint.[87] According to Stiger, "no force was reasonable in that position" where Floyd was prone and handcuffed.[86] In that position, Floyd was "not attempting to resist, not attempting to assault officers, kick, punch", opined Stiger.[86] The pressure exerted by Chauvin's body weight in that position may "cause positional asphyxia and could cause death", said Stiger.[86][88] Stiger testified that Chauvin executed a pain compliance technique on Floyd's wrist and knuckles, even though Floyd was prone, not resisting, and apparently unable to comply; this technique was applied for an excessive period of time.[86][88] Although Stiger said that a name-calling crowd could be viewed as "a potential threat", Stiger also testified that for the bystanders to Floyd's arrest: "I did not perceive them as being a threat", as most of their verbal remarks were due to "concern" for Floyd.[87] While Stiger agreed with defense attorney Nelson's assertion that police were trained to place a knee between the shoulder blades of suspects,[89] Stiger disagreed with Nelson's assertion that Chauvin had placed his knee "on" Floyd's shoulder blades, rather than "above" them.[86]
  • Special Agent James Reyerson of the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA) testified that he interviewed Minneapolis Chief Arradondoas during the investigation into Floyd's murder.[90]
  • McKenzie Anderson, a BCA forensic scientist who processed Floyd's SUV and the officers' squad car and tested eight stains positive for Floyd's DNA, including seven blood stains.[55]
  • Breahna Giles, a BCA chemical forensic scientist who testified that pills found inside Floyd's SUV contained fentanyl and methamphetamine.[55]
  • Susan Neith, a forensic chemist who testified that three pills found inside the SUV and squad car contained a fentanyl concentration of less than 1% and a methamphetamine concentration of 1.9 to 2.9%, whereas "the majority of time" Neith sees "90 to 100% methamphetamine".[55]
  • Martin J. Tobin, pulmonologist, critical care specialist, physiologist, and recognized expert in respiratory failure who said lack of oxygen to the brain and heart led to Floyd's death.[91] Tobin testified that Floyd died of low levels of oxygen caused by asphyxiation that resulted in brain damage and cardiac arrest, and that he did not die of a fentanyl overdose.[91]
  • Daniel Isenschmid, a forensic toxicologist who testified that the ratio of fentanyl to norfentanyl in Floyd's blood was 1.96 ng/ml, below the average of 9.05 in postmortem cases and 3.2 in DUI cases, adding that overdose victims rarely have norfentanyl in their blood.[55] He also testified that Floyd's level of methamphetamine was in the bottom 5.9% of a sample of DUI methamphetamine cases.[55]
  • Bill Smock, a legal forensic medicine specialist, surgeon, and former emergency room doctor who testified that Floyd died from a lack of oxygen and not a fentanyl overdose.[55]
  • Lindsey Thomas, a forensic pathologist.[92] She testified that there was "no evidence" that indicated that Floyd "would have died that night except for the interactions with law enforcement". Thomas said that the many videos of Floyd's arrest did not show signs of a death from a fentanyl overdose, as those deaths typically feature a person becoming "very sleepy" and then "peacefully stops breathing"; the videos also did not show Floyd experiencing a sudden death, as from a heart attack.[93]
  • Andrew Baker, the chief Hennepin County medical examiner, who performed the official autopsy on Floyd's body.[55][93] He testified that he stood by his autopsy finding that Floyd's death was a homicide caused by "cardiopulmonary arrest complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint and neck compression".[93] He said Floyd's heart disease, fentanyl intoxication and methamphetamine use were contributing causes but not direct causes because they "did not cause the subdual or the neck restraint". He said he did not believe the neck compression he saw in the videos (which left no signs of injury) could have restricted air or blood flow to Floyd's brain, but that it contributed to physiological stress, increased adrenaline, and elevated blood pressure.[94][95]
  • Jonathan Rich, a medical expert in cardiology, testified that despite seeing coronary artery blockage in Floyd's heart the heart is able to create new paths for blood to circulate and he saw nothing to suggest that a cardiac event played a role in his death. He also testified that he saw no evidence to suggest that a drug overdose caused Floyd's death.[96]
  • Philonise Floyd, younger brother of George Floyd, who recalled the close relationship between his brother and their mother.[53]
  • The final witness, Seth Stoughton, a law professor and former police officer, spoke as a use-of-force expert. Using the "reasonable officer" standard he testified that Chauvin's level of force was disproportionate to the circumstances. "No reasonable officer would have believed that this was an appropriate, acceptable or reasonable use of force."[55]

Body camera and surveillance footage

video iconExternal video Raw police bodycam footage beginning approximately 8:09 p.m. on YouTube (1 hr 5 mins)

Body camera footage from the four officers involved was entered into evidence and shown at trial.[97] Shortly after Floyd was taken away in an ambulance Chauvin's body camera shows him responding to a bystander who took issue with his kneeling on Floyd's neck. Chauvin responded to the bystander saying, "That's one person's opinion, we had to control this guy because he's a sizable guy. It looks like he's probably on something."[98] Prosecutors also showed surveillance footage of Floyd at Cup Foods shortly before his murder.[97]

Rebuttal witness

In a rebuttal to the defense's case on April 15, the prosecution called on Martin Tobin to testify again.[99] Tobin, an expert in respiratory failure, disagreed with defense witness Fowler's contention that carbon monoxide from the squad car may have played a role in Floyd's death.[99] Tobin testified that autopsy results showed Floyd's blood had an oxygen saturation level of 98%, meaning, "all there was for anything else was 2%" and humans normally have a blood level of 0 to 3% carbon monoxide at any given time.[99]

Defense case

The defense began its case on April 13, 2021,[53] and rested on April 15 after two days of testimony from seven witnesses.[100]

Defense witnesses

Chauvin decided not to testify in his own defense, exercising his Fifth Amendment right.[100][101] The defense's witnesses were:

  • Scott Creighton, a retired MPD officer who testified about a May 2019 traffic stop of Floyd during which he pointed his gun at Floyd because Floyd was "unresponsive" to commands to show his hands, adding that Floyd's "behavior was very nervous, anxious" during the previous incident.[55]
  • Michelle Moseng, a retired Hennepin EMS paramedic who assisted Floyd after his May 2019 arrest and testified about Floyd's high blood pressure, risk of stroke, and use of Percocets.[55]
  • Shawanda Hill, a passenger of Floyd's SUV who testified that Floyd was asleep after leaving Cup Foods, woke up briefly after Cup Foods employees approached, and woke up again after she tried to rouse him and told him "the police is here".[55]
  • Peter Chang, a Minneapolis Park police officer who responded to the scene and testified that bystanders were "very aggressive toward the officers".[55]
  • Nicole Mackenzie, an MPD medical support coordinator who was also called as a prosecution witness and was questioned about MPD training on the topic of excited delirium.[55]
  • Barry Brodd, a former police officer and expert on self-defense defended Chauvin's actions. Brodd said that Chauvin was acting with objective reasonableness and was justified when he put Floyd handcuffed in a prone position. He said that the action did not qualify as force because no pain was inflicted and that Chauvin was following Minneapolis Police Department policy and current standards of law enforcement.[102]
  • David Fowler, a retired forensic pathologist said that the manner of Floyd's death should be classified as "undetermined" rather than "homicide". He testified, "In my opinion, Mr. Floyd had a sudden cardiac arrhythmia ... due to his atherosclerotic and hypertensive heart disease ... during his restraint and subdual by the police." In his determination both the drugs fentanyl and methamphetamine contributed to Floyd's death and exposure to vehicle exhaust could have potentially contributed by causing increased carbon monoxide in his bloodstream or even carbon monoxide poisoning.[103] Fowler's evidence in Floyd's trial was reminiscent of the cause of death given in the case of 19-year-old college student Anton Black, a black teenager who died in 2018 after being restrained and pinned to the ground by three white police officers. A medical report Fowler signed said the teenager's death was because of his heart issues and that it was an accident. Fowler is facing a lawsuit by Black's family, which accuses him of concealing evidence and protecting the officers.[104][105] The ACLU accused Fowler of "creating false narratives about what kills Black people in police encounters".[106][107][108]

Footage of Floyd's previous arrest

The New York Times reported that while trial judge Cahill tried to strictly limit Floyd's past acts and state of mind saying they are not relevant to the case, defense attorney Nelson was allowed to open Chauvin's defense with a video of a May 2019 arrest of Floyd related to previous drug use suggesting that it showed "a pattern of behavior in which Mr. Floyd responded to the police by panicking, implying that he faked his response". Nelson had previously said in court, "[Floyd's response] goes to the very nature of this case and why public perception is what it is; the things that he is saying. 'I can't breathe.' 'I'm claustrophobic.' Calling out for his Mama."[109]

Closing arguments

Closing arguments were made on April 19, 2021, after Cahill announced on April 15 that the "evidence is now complete for this case".[99][110] For the prosecution, Schleicher opened his statements saying "His name was George Perry Floyd Jr.", adding later that Chauvin's behavior "wasn't policing, this was murder".[110] For the defense, Nelson said that a "reasonable police officer would understand this situation", arguing that "Floyd was able to overcome the efforts of three police officers while handcuffed".[110] For the state's rebuttal, Blackwell said that "reasonable is as reasonable does", asking jurors to "believe your eyes". Prior to closing arguments, Cahill read the jury instructions.[110]

Verdict

Jury deliberation began on April 19, 2021, following closing arguments.[111] On April 20, the jury announced it had reached a verdict after ten hours of deliberation.[112] Chauvin was found guilty on all three counts,[113][114][115] becoming the first white Minnesota police officer to be convicted of murdering a black person. It was only the second time an officer has been convicted of murder in Minnesota, the first being the third-degree murder conviction of Somali-American officer Mohamed Noor in the killing of Justine Damond, a white woman.[116] According to Nielsen ratings, approximately 18 million viewers across six networks watched the live reading of the verdict.[117]

After the verdict was read, Chauvin's bail was revoked and he was remanded into custody by the Hennepin County Sheriff's Office, which transferred Chauvin to the Minnesota Department of Corrections.[113] Chauvin was then booked into the Oak Park Heights maximum-security state prison and held in solitary confinement for 23 hours a day.[113][118]

Motion for new trial

Concerns surrounding juror partiality have come forth following the release of an image of a juror, Brandon Mitchell, wearing a "BLM" hat and wearing a t-shirt stating "Get your knee off our necks" while participating in a march in Washington, D.C. honoring Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I have a dream" speech.[119]

Chauvin's new trial motion was denied by Judge Cahill hours before his June 25 sentencing.[120] Judge Cahill ruled the night before that Chauvin "failed to demonstrate ... the Court abused its discretion or committed error such that Defendant was deprived of his constitutional right to a fair trial" and failed to demonstrate prosecutorial or juror misconduct.[120]

Sentencing

Chauvin faced a maximum of 40 years in prison, but Minnesota sentencing guidelines suggested a sentence of 12.5 years as Chauvin is a first-time offender with no prior criminal history. The state indicated that it would request a longer sentence than the guidelines recommend due to aggravating factors, including that the murder happened in the presence of children; that Floyd was treated with "particular cruelty" by Chauvin; and that Chauvin, as a police officer, "abused his position of authority".[121] On May 12, Judge Cahill allowed for the prosecution to seek a greater prison sentence after finding that Chauvin treated Floyd "with particular cruelty."[122] Prosecutors requested a 30-year prison sentence, which was "twice the upper end of the presumptive sentencing range" and "would properly account for the profound impact of Defendant's conduct on the victim, the victim's family, and the community," according to a sentencing memo.[120][123] Chauvin's attorney Nelson argued that the former officer should instead receive probation and time served, writing in a filing that "Mr. Chauvin asks the Court to look beyond its findings, to his background, his lack of criminal history, his amenability to probation, to the unusual facts of this case, and to his being a product of a 'broken' system.[120][123]

On June 25, 2021, a full year and month after Floyd's murder, Chauvin's sentencing hearing began.[124] During their victim impact statements, various members of Floyd's family expressed their emotional trauma suffered from Floyd's murder, and asked the Court for the maximum sentence.[125][126][127][128] Chauvin's mother also delivered a statement on behalf of her family.[129] In a statement, Chauvin expressed his condolences to the Floyd family, saying that "[t]here's going to be some other information in the future that would be of interest and I hope things will give you some peace of mind."[130]

Judge Cahill sentenced Derek Chauvin to 22.5 years in prison (minus the 199 days of credit he received) on the second-degree murder charge under the Minnesota Department of Corrections. The second-degree manslaughter and third-degree murder charges remain not adjudicated, as they are lesser offenses.[131][132][133] Chauvin is forever prohibited from owning any firearms and/or explosives, and is required to provide a DNA sample and register as a predatory offender.[131]

Reactions

Protests and demonstrations

Protesters march in Minneapolis on March 7, 2021.
Main article: Derek Chauvin protests

Protests, rallies, and marches have occurred outside of the courthouse, which officials surrounded with a temporary concrete barrier, metal fencing, and barbed wire in anticipation of civil unrest.[134] In early 2021, Minneapolis and Hennepin County officials spent

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million on fencing and barricades for government buildings and police stations in anticipation of civil unrest during the trial.[135] In February 2021, Governor Walz deployed the Minnesota National Guard for trial security and in the event of civil unrest, in response to requests from Minneapolis Mayor Jacob Frey and Saint Paul Mayor Melvin Carter.[136]

On March 7, 2021, one day ahead of jury selection, several hundred protesters marched in downtown Minneapolis and rallied outside the courthouse to mourn Floyd's murder and to call for police reform.[137] On March 8, about a thousand protesters gathered peacefully outside the courthouse to call for justice for Floyd and raise broader issues of racial injustice.[134] On March 28, one day ahead of opening statements, several rallies and protests were held in Minneapolis, including a march in downtown Minneapolis to demand justice for Floyd and rallies at the courthouse and City Hall.[138] Floyd's family and Al Sharpton hosted a vigil on March 28 at the Greater Friendship Missionary Baptist Church in Minneapolis.[138]

During the trial, daily visitors from across the United States visited George Floyd Square.[139] On April 6, 2021, Floyd's family held a prayer and press conference outside the courthouse with Sharpton, family attorney Benjamin Crump, and former New York Governor David Paterson.[140] On April 13, after the killing of Daunte Wright, members of the Floyd and Wright families held a press conference outside the courthouse with Crump.[141]

Government officials

File:President Biden and Vice President Harris Address the Nation on the Derek Chauvin Trial Verdict.webmPlay media
President Joe Biden and Vice President Kamala Harris deliver remarks on the verdict at the White House.[142]

On March 29, White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki said that President Joe Biden will "be watching [the trial] closely", would not weigh in while it is ongoing and was not in touch with Floyd's family ahead of it.[143]U.S. Representative Cori Bush tweeted on March 29 that "Derek Chauvin is on trial" and "George Floyd is not on trial",[144] adding on March 30 that Chauvin's defense attorney is "arguing that George Floyd does not deserve justice".[145]

On April 19, California Representative Maxine Waters said if Chauvin was not found guilty of murder, members of the George Floyd protests "gotta stay on the street, we've got to get more active, we've got to get more confrontational, we've got to make sure that they know that we mean business". Judge Cahill called legislators' failure to refrain from commenting on court cases "abhorrent" and said Waters' comments may constitute grounds for the defense to appeal and overturn a potential guilty verdict.[146][147]

While the sequestered jury was deliberating, Biden said he was praying for "the right verdict". He also contacted Floyd's family during this time. He remarked, "They're a good family and they're calling for peace and tranquility, no matter what the verdict is."[148] After the verdict, Biden and Vice President Kamala Harris made statements to the press, with Biden calling it a "step forward". Harris said justice isn't just a "people of color problem", but a problem for "every American". They both urged Congress to pass the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act, which Harris co-authored as Senator, to reform policing in America.[149]

Following the verdict, Republican Senators Tim Scott of South Carolina and Mike Braun of Indiana made statements indicating support for the ruling. Scott said that he was "thankful for the verdict" and that "There is no question in [his] mind that the jury reached the right verdict", and Braun said that he had "hoped for" a guilty verdict.[150]Democratic Representative Joyce Beatty of Ohio, chair of the Congressional Black Caucus, spoke in support of the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act.[151] Former President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama said that "Minneapolis did the right thing".[151]

Public viewing of the trial

It was the first criminal trial in Minnesota to be entirely televised and the first in state court to be broadcast live.[43][152]Court TV televised the entire trial live. The New York Times reported strong public interest throughout the trial. CNN had more viewing during key portions of the trial than it did in prime time. All broadcast networks had a "huge viewership" and in the U.S. more than 23 million watched the reading of the verdict.[153][154][155] It was also widely broadcast around the world with a large viewership and commentary.[156] Minnesota trials are not generally televised. However, due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic Judge Cahill made the decision to televise the trial. Attorney General Ellison objected, fearing that it might intimidate the witnesses, but a coalition of the defense, news outlets, and, ultimately, Cahill disagreed.[157]

Family, legal team, and supporters

Following Chauvin's conviction, Ellison, who served as the head of prosecution, held a televised press conference in which he thanked his prosecution team.[158] Hennepin County District Attorney Mike Freeman and trial lawyers Steve Schleider, Jerry Blackwell and Matthew Frank were among those who spoke at Ellison's post-trial press conference.[158]

Attorney Benjamin Crump

Following the verdict, the Floyd family held a news conference which included members of the Floyd family, the legal team, and others. The family attorney Benjamin Crump issued a statement which read in part:

Painfully earned justice has arrived for George Floyd's family and the community here in Minneapolis, but today's verdict goes far beyond this city and has significant implications for the country and even the world. Justice for Black America is justice for all of America. This case is a turning point in American history for accountability of law enforcement and sends a clear message we hope is heard clearly in every city and every state.[159]

Floyd had three brothers and one sister. At the news conference Philonise Floyd commented, "A lot of days I prayed and I hoped ... I said, 'I have faith that he will be convicted.'" He compared his brother's murder to that of Emmett Till, whose murder made him an icon of the civil rights movement. Another brother, Terrence Floyd, spoke saying, "I'm just grateful. I'm grateful that my grandmother, my mother, my aunt, they got to see this history made."[160] Floyd's sister Bridgett said, "That's a very big step that they [the jury] took yesterday. But that's the right way to do things. That's the way things are supposed to be done. And it shouldn't have took an officer on a man's neck, my brother's neck, for nine minutes and 29 seconds for them to be convicted."[161]

Rev. Al Sharpton was also in attendance. He spoke saying "We still have cases to fight, but this gives us the energy to fight on".[160]NAACP president Derrick Johnson released a statement on the verdict. Johnson said in part, "While justice landed Derek Chauvin behind bars for murdering George Floyd, no amount of justice will bring Gianna's father back. The same way a reasonable police officer would never suffocate an unarmed man to death, a reasonable justice system would recognize its roots in white supremacy and end qualified immunity."[162]

International

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau welcomed the verdict and said that Americans had seen "accountability for the murder of George Floyd", but warned about continuing alleged systemic racism in the United States.[163] British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said he had been "appalled" by Floyd's murder and that his thoughts were with Floyd's family.[163] London Mayor Sadiq Khan said that the verdict must be the "beginning of a real change, not the end", and sympathized with Floyd's family.[163]

United Nations Human Rights Chief Michelle Bachelet called the verdict "momentous".[164]

Media coverage

The Guardian reported that countries around the world showed an intense interest in the trial with news organizations live blogging the proceedings and the guilty outcome of the trial. They commented that many felt relief that the jury had delivered a verdict that many felt was correct, and questioned what it meant for future United States racial relations. The French newspaper Le Monde commented that Americans were relieved by the "historic verdict" and described the crowd gathered outside the courtroom as jubilant when the verdict was delivered. The Times of India expressed similar commentary: "Tears of joy, relief after conviction in Floyd murder case." In Spain, the ABC commented that the trial had "shaken the country for the past year and once again dragged the world's oldest and most stable democracy before the mirror of racial inequalities." In Sweden, the Svenska Dagbladet used the verdict to look forward, quoting President Joe Biden in its headline: "Joe Biden: The Floyd ruling is a big step forward." In Australia, The Sydney Morning Herald wrote that while "the moment is undoubtedly significant ... no one in the US, least of all African Americans, is naive enough to believe the verdict marks an end to racial inequality or police brutality in America." The English-language website of China's state-run Global Times said: "Former US police officer Derek Chauvin found guilty of murder and manslaughter in George Floyd's death."[165]

The trial's verdict received significant backlash from right-wing and conservative media, who have alleged the verdict was "rigged" or influenced by "mob rule". Speaking on Steve Bannon's podcast War Room, former President Donald Trump's lawyer Rudy Giuliani suggested that the case "was subverted by the media, by Maxine Waters, and numerous other public officials." According to Giuliani, "there was no way in the world that the jury wasn't hearing that and paying attention to it." Bannon also included President Biden in the list of "outside officials".[166] On April 20, 2021, American conservative commentator Tucker Carlson said on Fox News without evidence that the jurors who found Chauvin guilty were threatened into doing so by Black Lives Matter protests, rather than being swayed by witness testimony or visceral video of Floyd's murder. Carlson said: "Everyone understood perfectly well the consequences of an acquittal in this case. After nearly a year of burning and looting and murder by BLM, that was never in doubt."[167]

Opinion polling

Three in four Americans share the view that the jury reached the right verdict in the trial of Derek Chauvin. Among White Americans, 90% of Democrats polled believe the right verdict was reached while only 54% of Republicans find the guilty decision to be correct. 93% of Black Americans agree with the decision. Polling shows that of the 25% who believe that the jury did not reach the right decision, they also "strongly disagree" with the beliefs of the Black Lives Matter movement. They largely identify as conservative, they are composed of more men than women, and they are disproportionately White. President Biden had a 60% approval rating for his handling of matters surrounding Floyd's murder and Chauvin's trial, similar to his overall job rating of his first 100 days in office.[168]

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External links

  • Media related to State v. Chauvin at Wikimedia Commons
  • Wikinews-logo.svg Former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin found guilty of murdering George Floyd at Wikinews
  • State vs. Derek Chauvin (27-CR-20-12646) at Minnesota Judicial Branch
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trial_of_Derek_Chauvin&oldid=1061785053"
Derek Chauvin pleads guilty to federal charges of ...

The 45-year-old Chauvin, who is already serving a 22 1/2-year state prison sentence for killing Floyd in May 2020, could get additional time behind bars when he is sentenced at a later date. Court TV

Eight months after being convicted of state murder charges in the death of George Floyd, former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin pleaded guilty on Wednesday to federal charges of violating the 46-year-old Black man's civil rights.

"At this time, guilty, your honor," Chauvin, wearing an orange prison jumpsuit, said in Minnesota U.S. District Court in St. Paul when questioned by Judge Paul Magnuson.

The 45-year-old Chauvin, who is already serving a 22 1/2-year state prison sentence for killing Floyd in May 2020, could get additional time behind bars when he is sentenced at a later date.

Former police officer Derek Chauvin addresses the court during his sentencing in the murder of George Floyd at Hennepin County Government Center, June 25, 2021, in Minneapolis.

Federal prosecutors are asking that Chauvin be sentenced to up to 25 years in federal prison. The federal sentence is to be served concurrently with the state sentence, according to the plea agreement Chauvin signed in court.

Floyd's brothers Terrence, Rodney and Philonise Floyd, along with their nephew, Brandon Williams, were in the courtroom when Chauvin pleaded guilty.

"Honestly, hearing what Derek Chauvin said in the courtroom is not what we definitely wanted. We wanted this at the beginning of the trial (back in March)," Rodney Floyd said at a news conference following the plea hearing. "My reaction is not what you'd expect. I'm still feeling the anger I felt in the beginning."

Philonise Floyd added, "We can never get justice because we can never get George back."

Philonise Floyd, right, and Terrence Floyd, left, George Floyd's brothers, and nephew Brandon Williams, center, attend a press conference outside the US District Court in St Paul, Minn., Dec. 15, 2021.

Attorneys for the Floyd family, Ben Crump, Antonio Romanucci and Jeff Storms, released a joint statement, saying: “As our nation continues to grapple with the demons of our past and present, historic days make us hopeful for our future. Today is one such day."

The statement adds: "Before the tragic and needless death of George Floyd, there was little expectation that a white police officer would ever be held accountable for murdering a Black man. But when Derek Chauvin was held to account, the jury – and people across the country – finally said enough was enough."

A federal grand jury in May indicted Chauvin and three other police officers -- Tou Thao, 35, J. Alexander Kueng, 27, and Thomas Lane, 38 in connection to Floyd's death.

Snow covers George Floyd Square at the corner of 38th Street and Chicago Avenue in Minneapolis, Dec. 12, 2021.

The four men were scheduled to go to trial in federal court together in January.

All four defendants were charged with depriving Floyd of his constitutional right to be free from the use of unreasonable force when they held the handcuffed man on the ground on May 25, 2020, and Chauvin dug his knee into Floyd's neck and back for more than nine minutes even as Floyd complained he could not breathe, fell unconscious and lost a pulse.

The indictment alleges Thao and Kueng willfully failed to intervene to stop Chauvin’s use of unreasonable force.

Lane was heard on body-camera footage played at Chauvin's state trial this year suggesting that Floyd be turned on his side to alleviate his breathing.

Lane, Kueng and Thao are also scheduled to go on trial on state charges in March 2022 on state charges of aiding and abetting second-degree murder and aiding and abetting second-degree manslaughter. They have all pleaded not guilty.

According to a statement from the U.S. Department of Justice, Chauvin "admitted that he continued to use force even though he was aware that Mr. Floyd had stopped resisting, talking and moving, and even though he was aware that Mr. Floyd had lost consciousness and a pulse."

Chauvin also admitted, according to the DOJ statement, that he willfully violated Floyd’s constitutional right not to be deprived of liberty without due process of law, which included his right to be free from a police officer’s deliberate indifference to his serious medical needs.

"While recognizing that nothing can repair the harm caused by such acts, the Justice Department is committed to holding accountable those who violate the Constitution, and to safeguarding the civil rights of all Americans," U.S. Attorney General Merrick Garland said in a statement.

The U.S. District Court in St. Paul, Minnesota, where Derek Chauvin, the former Minneapolis police officer convicted of the murder of George Floyd, will appear to face federal charges of violating the civil rights of Floyd.

Under the terms of the plea deal, Chauvin will serve his sentence in federal custody and will not be eligible to work in any law enforcement capacity following his release.

In a separate federal indictment, Chauvin also pleaded guilty to willfully depriving a 14-year-old Minneapolis resident of his constitutional right to be free from the use of unreasonable force by a police officer. The charges stem from an episode in September 2017 and allege that Chauvin, without legal justification, held the teenager by the throat, struck him multiple times in the head with a flashlight and held his knee on the boy's neck and the upper back while he was handcuffed and in a prone position.

"After hearing the details of it, that guy (Chauvin) is a monster," Brandon Williams, Floyd's nephew, said of the brutality case involving the teenager. "He should have been arrested in 2017. Had he been held accountable for what he did in 2017 to that minor, George Floyd would still be here."

In April, Chauvin was convicted of second-degree unintentional murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter stemming from Floyd's death, which prompted protests nationwide.

Matthew Barhoma, a Los Angeles criminal appeals attorney, said Chauvin change-of-plea will likely not help Thao, Kueng and Lane.

"Prosecutors will be able to inform jurors in the case against the other officers that Chauvin pleaded guilty, which will reflect badly on those defendants," Barhoma said in a statement to ABC News.

ABC News' Matt Stone and Stephanie Wash contributed to this report.

Derek Chauvin sentenced to 22.5 years for the murder of ...

"I want to play with him, have fun, go on a plane ride," the 7-year-old said. Philonise Floyd said that he has begged every day for justice to be served. "George's life mattered," he said.

MINNEAPOLIS — Derek Chauvin, the former Minneapolis police officer convicted of murder in the death of George Floyd, was sentenced Friday to 22 and a half years in prison, closing a chapter on a case that sparked global outrage and protests.

Hennepin County District Judge Peter Cahill said the sentence was not based on public opinion, "emotion or sympathy." He said he was not trying to "send any messages."

"This is based on your abuse of a position of trust and authority and also the particular cruelty shown to George Floyd," he told Chauvin.

The judge said he also wanted to "acknowledge the deep and tremendous pain that all the families are feeling, especially the Floyd family."

Prosecutors had asked that Chauvin receive 30 years in prison. His lawyer had sought probation.

Hours before the hearing began, Cahill denied a request from Chauvin's attorney for a new trial. He also denied a request to hold a hearing on juror misconduct.

Chauvin was convicted in April of second- and third-degree murder, as well as second-degree manslaughter.

1624649775616_nbc_spec_floyd_chauvin_stat_210625_1920x1080.jpg

He spoke briefly before the sentence was announced.

"At this time due to some additional legal matters at hand, I'm not able to give a full, formal statement," Chauvin said. "I do want to give my condolences to the Floyd family. There's going to be some other information in the future that would be of interest and I hope things will give you some, some peace of mind."

The sentencing hearing began with statements from four of Floyd's family members: his daughter, Gianna Floyd; his brothers Terrence and Philonise Floyd; and his nephew Brandon Williams.

1624646398693_nbc_spec_floyddaughter_210625_1920x1080.jpg

Gianna, who appeared by video, said she asks about her father "all the time" and misses that he is not around to help her brush her teeth at night.

"I want to play with him, have fun, go on a plane ride," the 7-year-old said.

Philonise Floyd said that he has begged every day for justice to be served.

"George's life mattered," he said. "I am asking that you please find it suitable to give Officer Chauvin the maximum sentence possible. My family and I have been given a life sentence."

Chauvin's mother, Carolyn Pawlenty, also spoke during the hearing. She called her son "a good man."

"Derek is a quiet, thoughtful, honorable and selfless man," she said. Pawlenty said her son's identity has "been reduced to that of a racist."

1624648893165_nbc_spec_floyd_mother_210625_1920x1080.jpg

"Even though I have not spoken publicly, I have always supported him 100 percent and always will," she said.

Under Minnesota statutes, Chauvin could be sentenced only on the most serious charge: unintentional second-degree murder, which has a maximum sentence of 40 years.

Cahill could have sentenced him to as little as 10 years and eight months or as much as 15 years in prison and remained within sentencing guidelines. The presumptive sentence for a person like Chauvin, who had no criminal history, is 12½ years for second-degree murder.

Last month, Cahill ruled that prosecutors had proven there were aggravating factors in Floyd's death, paving the way for a longer sentence.

Floyd, a Black man, was handcuffed, in a prone position on the street May 25, 2020, as Chauvin, who is white, knelt on his neck for 9½ minutes while Floyd said he couldn't breathe and went limp. Floyd's gruesome death — captured in a harrowing bystander video that was posted to Facebook and widely viewed — ignited a reckoning on racial disparities in America and fueled calls for police reform.

In arguing for a 30-year sentence, prosecutors said there were five aggravating factors in Floyd's death. In his ruling last month, Cahill wrote that the prosecution had proven four of those factors: Chauvin abused his position of trust and authority; treated Floyd with particular cruelty; committed his crime in the presence of children "who witnessed the last moments" of Floyd's life; and with the active participation of at least three other people. (Cahill said prosecutors did not prove that Floyd was particularly vulnerable.)

In a sentencing memo released after the hearing, Cahill said his decision to depart from sentencing guidelines and give Chauvin a longer sentence was based on only two of those factors.

He wrote that Chauvin killed Floyd in a "manner that was particularly cruel and an abuse of his authority."

"It was particularly cruel to kill George Floyd slowly by preventing his ability to breathe when Mr. Floyd had already made it clear he was having trouble breathing," Cahill wrote, citing his earlier ruling.

Chauvin "manifested his indifference to Mr. Floyd's pleas for his life and his medical distress" by not providing aid, declining suggestions from two other officers to do so and preventing bystanders from helping, he wrote.

"Part of the mission of the Minneapolis Police Department is to give citizens 'voice and respect,'" the judge wrote. "Here, Mr. Chauvin, rather than pursuing the MPD mission, treated Mr. Floyd without respect and denied him the dignity owed to all human beings and which he certainly would have extended to a friend or neighbor."

In addition to the prison time, Cahill said Chauvin was barred from possessing firearms, must provide a DNA sample and register as a predatory offender. The ex-officer was granted credit for 199 days already served.

Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison, whose office prosecuted the case, welcomed the decision.

"Like the conviction of Derek Chauvin two months ago, today's sentencing is not justice, but it is another moment of real accountability on the road to justice," Ellison said in prepared remarks delivered shortly after the hearing.

"My hope for Derek Chauvin is that he uses his long sentence to reflect on his choices and his life. My hope is that he will be able to find it within himself to acknowledge the impact of his choices on George Floyd, his family, his fellow police officers, and the world," Ellison said. "My hope is that he takes the time to learn about the man whose life he took and about the movement that rose up to call for justice in the wake of George Floyd's death."

Chauvin's attorney, Eric Nelson, did not respond to a request for comment.

Chauvin's conviction was a rare occurrence: It is unusual for police officers to be prosecuted for killing someone on the job. Philip Stinson, a criminal justice professor at Bowling Green State University in Ohio, has found through his research that Chauvin is one of only 11 nonfederal law enforcement officers — such as police officers, deputy sheriffs and state troopers — who have been convicted of murder for on-duty killings since 2005.

Chauvin and the three other former police officers involved in Floyd's arrest — J. Alexander Kueng, Thomas Lane and Tou Thao — were fired the day after Floyd's death. They are also awaiting trial in federal court on charges of violating Floyd's civil rights.

Cahill delayed the trial of Kueng, Lane and Thao, who are charged with aiding and abetting second-degree murder and aiding and abetting second-degree manslaughter and whose trial was originally scheduled to begin in August, to March 2022, saying last month that he wanted to put some distance between their trial and Chauvin's trial. Cahill also said he wanted them to be tried on the federal charges first.

Firefighter, 9-year-old and teens give powerful testimony ...

30-03-2021 · Firefighter, 9-year-old and teens give powerful testimony in Derek Chauvin trial. President Joe Biden, accompanied by Vice President Kamala Harris, speaks Tuesday, April 20, 2021, at the White ...

30-03-2021

Watch live coverage of the trial on HLN starting at 10 a.m. ET daily.

CNN  — 

A professional fighter felt scared. An off-duty firefighter felt desperate. A high school student felt threatened. And a 9-year-old girl felt sad and kind of mad.

Feelings of horror and fear were recalled in a Minneapolis court Tuesday as a series of bystanders testified about what it was like to witness George Floyd slowly die under the knee of former police officer Derek Chauvin last May.

Six bystanders testified on the second day of Chauvin’s criminal trial: a 9-year-old girl, three high school students, a mixed martial arts fighter and a Minneapolis firefighter. All arrived at the scene hoping to buy snacks from a corner store or looking to get fresh air – only to witness a man’s last breaths.

“I was sad and kind of mad,” the 9-year-old testified. “Because it felt like he was stopping his breathing, and it was kind of like hurting him.”

The MMA fighter, Donald Wynn Williams II, testified that he was so disturbed by what he saw that he called 911 to report it. “I called the police on the police,” he said. “I believed I witnessed a murder.”

Minneapolis firefighter and certified EMT Genevieve Hansen, who was out for a walk on her day off, testified she wanted to render aid to Floyd and repeatedly asked police to check for a pulse. They refused.

“I tried calm reasoning, I tried to be assertive, I pled and was desperate,” she testified. “I was desperate to give help.”

She, too, called 911 afterward to report what police had done. Her call was the third such report; In addition to Williams, a Minneapolis 911 dispatcher who saw the arrest on a live video feed testified Monday that she alerted a police sergeant.

The bystanders’ harrowing testimony furthered the prosecution’s opening pitch to jurors, which focused on video of the 9 minutes and 29 seconds that Chauvin knelt on Floyd’s neck.

“You can believe your eyes that it’s a homicide,” prosecuting attorney Jerry Blackwell said Monday. “You can believe your eyes.”

Defense attorney Eric Nelson argued that the case was more complicated than just that video. He said Chauvin was following his police use of force training and argued Floyd’s cause of death was a combination of drug use and preexisting health issues.

He also said that the bystanders morphed into a threatening crowd, which distracted the officers. In contentious cross-examinations Tuesday of Williams and Hansen, he tried to get them to admit they and the crowd were angry.

Chauvin, 45, has pleaded not guilty to charges of second-degree unintentional murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter. His trial comes 10 months after Floyd’s death sparked a summer of protest, unrest and a societal reckoning with America’s past and present of anti-Black racism and aggressive policing.

Because of the Covid-19 pandemic, attendance is strictly limited inside the courtroom. The trial is being broadcast live in its entirety, giving the public a rare peek into the most important case of the Black Lives Matter era.

Hear what firefighter says cops told her when she tried to help George Floyd

Hansen, the off-duty firefighter, testified while wearing her work uniform on Tuesday. She said she became concerned for Floyd’s health last May when she arrived to the scene while out for a walk. “He wasn’t moving and he was cuffed, and three grown men putting all their weight on somebody is too much,” she said.

She identified herself as a Minneapolis firefighter and moved to help, but former officer Tou Thao refused her access to treat Floyd. His refusal made her “totally distressed,” frustrated and feeling helpless, she testified.

She ultimately filmed part of Floyd’s arrest on her phone and later called 911 to report it.

“When things calmed down, I realized I wanted them to know what was going on. I wanted to basically report it,” she said.

On cross-examination, she repeatedly took issue with Nelson’s questioning and at one point responded to a question with snark. “I don’t know if you’ve ever seen someone die in front of you, but it’s very upsetting,” she said.

After dismissing the jury for the day, Judge Peter Cahill admonished Hansen, telling her to answer the questions asked and stop arguing with Nelson. Her testimony will continue on Wednesday.

Like Hansen, two of the high school students took cell phone videos of Floyd, which were played in court for the jury. The teenager who took the most widely known bystander video, Darnella Frazier, testified that she saw her own Black father, brothers, cousins and friends in Floyd.

“I look at that and I look at how that could have been one of them,” she said through tears. “It’s been nights I’ve stayed up apologizing to George Floyd for not doing more and not physically interacting and not saving his life. But it’s not what I should have done, it’s what he should have done.”

She was identified in court only by her first name, but she has been internationally recognized for her decision to record and share the video.

The third high school student said she saw Chauvin dig his knee into Floyd’s neck. She said at one point Chauvin got out his mace and started shaking it as bystanders called on officers to get off Floyd.

“I was scared of Chauvin,” she said.

Witness wipes away tears listening back to his call to 911

Williams, the MMA fighter whose testimony began Monday afternoon and continued Tuesday, was one of the most vocal among those in the widely seen bystander video of Floyd’s final moments, repeatedly pleading for Chauvin to get off Floyd and calling him a “bum” and a “tough guy.”

He testified that he had gone fishing with his son earlier that day. He decided to go to the Cup Foods store to “get some air” after watching several caught fish suffocate and die. When he came upon Floyd’s arrest nearby, he watched Floyd gasp for air and saw his eyes roll back in his head – “like a fish in a bag,” he explained.

Relying on his own MMA experience, Williams said that Chauvin performed a “blood choke” on Floyd and adjusted his positioning several times to maintain pressure on Floyd’s neck. He said he wanted to get Chauvin off Floyd but didn’t physically intervene because officer Thao was directing him to stay away.

“I just was really trying to keep my professionalism and make sure I speak out for Floyd’s life because I felt like he was in very much danger,” he said.

In a contentious cross-examination, Williams acknowledged that he had repeatedly called Chauvin and Thao names and yelled at them even after Floyd had been taken away in an ambulance. Yet he rejected defense attorney Eric Nelson’s description that he had grown “angry” on the scene.

“I grew professional. I stayed in my body. You can’t paint me out to be angry,” he said.

The second-degree murder charge says Chauvin intentionally assaulted Floyd with his knee, which unintentionally caused Floyd’s death. The third-degree murder charge says Chauvin acted with a “depraved mind, without regard for human life,” and the second-degree manslaughter charge says Chauvin’s “culpable negligence” caused Floyd’s death.

Chauvin could be convicted of all, some, or none of the charges. Minnesota’s sentencing guidelines recommend about 12.5 years in prison for each murder charge and about four years for the manslaughter charge.

Witness testimony in the trial is expected to last about four weeks, followed by jury deliberations.

Derek Chauvin Guilty On All 3 ... - WCCO

20-04-2021 · Following nearly a year of protest, introspection and raw emotion, former Minneapolis officer Derek Chauvin has been found guilty of second-degree murder and two other charges in Floyd's death.

20-04-2021

MINNEAPOLIS (WCCO) — Following nearly a year of protest, introspection and raw emotion, former Minneapolis officer Derek Chauvin, who last May held a knee down on George Floyd’s neck for more than 9 minutes, has been found guilty of second-degree murder and two other charges in Floyd’s death.

Chauvin has been remanded to the custody of Hennepin County. He was led out of the courtroom in handcuffs.

READ MORE: Downtown Minneapolis Prince Mural To Be Unveiled In June

The Minnesota Department of Corrections says Chauvin was booked into Minnesota Correctional Facility-Oak Park Heights just before 5 p.m., as part of an agreement with the Hennepin County Sheriff’s Office.

According to a pool report, George Floyd’sbrother, Philonise Floyd, was praying in the courtroom before the verdict was read.

“I was just praying they would find him guilty,” he said after the conviction. “As an African American, we usually never get justice.”

CHAUVIN FOUND GUILTY ON ALL CHARGES

We are just next door from the Floyd family and their attorneys. We could hear screams of joy through the wall as the verdict was read#chauvintrial #wcco #minneapolis #georgefloyd

— Erin Hassanzadeh WCCO (@erinreportsTV) April 20, 2021

Family members of George Floyd, along with attorney Ben Crump and Rev. Al Sharpton, held a press conference about an hour after the verdict was read. Sharpton first led a prayer with the family.

“Let’s lean into this moment and let’s make sure that this moment will be documented for our children as they continue on the journey to justice knowing that the blood of George Floyd will give them a trail to find a way to a better America,” Crump said.

The verdict was read in Hennepin County court just after 4 p.m. Tuesday. In addition to the second-degree murder conviction, the jury found Chauvin guilty of third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter.

GUILTY ON ALL COUNTS: Watch as Judge Peter Cahill reads the verdict in the #DerekChauvinTrial. | Latest story: https://t.co/1UiebJFAeY pic.twitter.com/JtulffjQdY

— WCCO – CBS Minnesota (@WCCO) April 20, 2021

In a statement, Gov. Tim Walz called Chauvin’s conviction “an important step forward for justice in Minnesota.”

Gov. Tim Walz on Chauvin guilty verdict:

“It’s an important step towards justice in Minnesota… this is the floor, not the ceiling, of where we need to get to.” @wcco pic.twitter.com/ADeGhyNwYg

— Caroline Cummings (@CaroRCummings) April 20, 2021

“George Floyd mattered. He was loved by his family and his friends,” Attorney General Keith Ellison said at a press conference Tuesday afternoon. “But that isn’t why he mattered. He mattered because he was a human being. And there is no way that we can turn away from that reality.”

President Joe Biden and Vice President Kamala Harris spoke Tuesday evening on Chauvin’s conviction.

"Today's verdict is a step forward. Nothing can ever bring [George Floyd] back," President Biden says, but adds the verdict can be a "big step" towards justice in America.

Watch here on @WCCO: https://t.co/sl3EgozUYo pic.twitter.com/O8aFPZoHvT

— Caroline Cummings (@CaroRCummings) April 20, 2021

Darnella Frazier, who recorded the video of Floyd’s death that spread quickly online on May 25, 2020, wrote on Facebook that “justice has been served.”

Reaction from Darnella Frazier, who recorded the video of George Floyd’s murder pic.twitter.com/CYu4A3aNL3

— David Schuman (@david_schuman) April 20, 2021

In a statement released Tuesday evening, Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo — who fired Chauvin one day after Floyd’s death, and testified against him in his trial — thanked the jurors for “their immense responsibility and honorable civic duty.” He also called for peace and calm.

“Now is the time to use our humanity to lift each other up and not tear our City down,” Arradondo said.

It took the jury roughly 10 hours of deliberation to reach their verdict — about four hours Monday afternoon and evening, and another six hours Tuesday starting at 8 a.m.

READ MORE: MN Weather: Temps Near 60 On Sunday, But Another Storm Is On The Way

Chauvin was convicted on the following charges:

  • Second-degree unintentional murder means causing death without intent by committing a felony.
  • Second-degree manslaughter is causing death by unreasonable risk.
  • Third-degree murder means causing death by an “eminently dangerous” act, showing a “depraved mind.”

Earlier Tuesday, WCCO’s Esme Murphy reported that Hennepin County court employees were notified to stop working at all downtown courthouse locations and to “exit downtown immediately.”

Public safety officials said there would be no statewide curfew Tuesday night. Following Chauvin’s conviction, crowds gathered at the Hennepin County Government Center, George Floyd Square at 38th and Chicago and in Brooklyn Center, where 20-year-old Daunte Wright was shot and killed by police in the middle of Chauvin’s trial.

No *statewide curfew* in Minnesota following verdict.

"We don't believe that makes any sense," says Dept. of Public Safety head John Harrington.

Does this verdict change anything re: security?

"We do have a plan to continue our operation for this evening," he said. @wcco

— Caroline Cummings (@CaroRCummings) April 20, 2021

The maximum penalty on second-degree murder charges is up to 40 years in prison, and the third-degree murder charges carries a sentence of up to 25 years in prison. The maximum penalty on second-degree manslaughter is up to 10 years in prison.

Judge Peter Cahill said sentencing will take place in about eight weeks.

The jurors heard closing arguments in the trial of Derek Chauvin Monday. The two sides split most significantly on the cause of death. The prosecution argued that all the law requires is that the prosecution prove beyond a reasonable doubt is that Chauvin’s knee restraint was a “substantial cause” of Floyd’s death.

The defense stressed that Chauvin did what any reasonable officer would have done and said it was wrong to look only at nine minutes and 29 seconds when Floyd was on the ground.

In a departure from how he has looked throughout the trial, Chauvin was maskless and looked directly at his attorney throughout the three-hour defense closing statement. For the rest of the testimony and the prosecution closing he was head down, masked and taking extensive notes.

While Nelson’s summation was lengthy, it was also complex. And that may be why Blackwell came back with this statement in his rebuttal argument. He said this case is not that complicated and that, in the state’s view, Chauvin caused Floyd’s death.

The line he left the jury with was this: “You were told, for example, that Mr. Floyd died because his heart was too big. You heard that testimony. And now having seen all the evidence, having heard all the evidence, you know the truth. And the truth of the matter is that the reason George Floyd is dead is because Mr. Chauvin’s heart was too small.”

Since the trial began last month, the prosecution called 38 people. The defense called seven people to testify in court. Chauvin was not one of them; he invoked his constitutional right not to testify. It was a decision that came without the jury present.

Now that Chauvin has been convicted, next comes the determination about whether any aggravating factors existed.

The first possible aggravating factor is whether the victim was “treated with particular cruelty.” The second is if a child was present. Witnesses at the scene and who testified included two teens who were 17 at the time, as well as a 9-year-old.

“If they find aggravating factors the judge could go all the way up to the statutory maximum, which for count one is up to 40 years, count two up to 25 years, and count three up to 10 years,” attorney Joe Tamburino told WCCO.

The other three officers involved are charged with aiding and abetting, and are expected to be tried jointly in August.

MORE NEWS: Minn. Filmmaker Who Nearly Died Of COVID Now Volunteers At Hospital That Helped Him

Earl Gray, the attorney representing ex-officer Thomas Lane, told WCCO he had no comment on Chauvin’s conviction.

George Floyd

13-12-2021 · African-American man murdered by police in 2020 This article is about the man murdered during a police arrest. For other uses, see George Floyd (disambiguation). George FloydFloyd in 2016

13-12-2021
African-American man murdered by police in 2020
This article is about the man murdered during a police arrest. For other uses, see George Floyd (disambiguation).
George Floyd.png
George Floyd
Floyd in 2016
Born
George Perry Floyd Jr.

(1973-10-14)October 14, 1973[1]
Fayetteville, North Carolina, U.S.
DiedMay 25, 2020(2020-05-25) (aged 46)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
Cause of deathMurder (Cardiopulmonary arrest due to neck compression)[2]Resting placeHouston Memorial Gardens, Pearland, Texas, U.S.Other namesBig FloydEducation
  • Yates High School
  • South Florida State College
  • Texas A&M University–Kingsville
Occupation
  • Truck driver
  • security guard
Known forCircumstances of his deathChildren5

George Perry Floyd Jr. (October 14, 1973 – May 25, 2020) was an African-American man who was murdered by a police officer in Minneapolis, Minnesota, during an arrest after a store clerk suspected Floyd may have used a counterfeit bill, on May 25, 2020.[3]Derek Chauvin, one of four police officers who arrived on the scene, knelt on Floyd's neck and back for 9 minutes and 29 seconds.[4] After his murder, protests against police brutality, especially towards black people, quickly spread across the United States and globally. His dying words, "I can't breathe," became a rallying cry.

Born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, Floyd grew up in Houston, Texas, playing football and basketball throughout high school and college. Between 1997 and 2005, he was convicted of eight crimes. He served four years in prison after accepting a plea bargain for a 2007 aggravated robbery in a home invasion.[5] After he was paroled in 2013, he served as a mentor in his religious community and posted anti-violence videos to social media.[6][7][8][9] In 2014, he moved to the Minneapolis area, residing in the nearby suburb of St. Louis Park, and worked as a truck driver and bouncer. In 2020, he lost his job as a truck driver, and then his security job during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The City of Minneapolis settled a wrongful death lawsuit with Floyd's family for million. Chauvin was convicted on two counts of murder and one count of manslaughter on April 20, 2021[10] and on June 25, 2021, was sentenced to 22.5 years in prison.[11] The trial of the other three officers at the scene of Floyd's murder is scheduled to begin on March 7, 2022.[12]

Early life

Floyd was born on October 14, 1973, in Fayetteville, North Carolina, to George Perry and Larcenia "Cissy" Jones Floyd.[8][13] He had four siblings.[14][15][16] His great-great-grandfather Hillery Thomas Stewart Sr. was born as a slave but acquired his freedom in the Civil War; while Stewart was in his 20s, he acquired 500 acres (200 ha) of land but lost it to white farmers who used legally questionable maneuvers that were common at the time in the South.[17]

When he was two, after Floyd's parents separated, his mother moved with the children to the Cuney Homes public housing,[6][18][19] known as Bricks, in Houston's Third Ward, a historically African-American neighborhood.[8][13][6] Floyd was called Perry as a child, but also Big Floyd; being over six feet (183 cm) tall in middle school, he saw sports as a vehicle for improving his life.[6]

Floyd attended Ryan Middle School,[20] and graduated from Yates High School in 1993. While at Yates, he was co-captain of the basketball team playing as a power forward. He was also on the football team as a tight end, and in 1992, his team went to the Texas state championships.[8][15][6][18]

The first of his siblings to go to college, Floyd attended South Florida Community College for two years on a football scholarship, and also played on the basketball team.[6][21][22] He transferred to Texas A&M University–Kingsville in 1995, where he also played basketball before dropping out.[23][24][25] At his tallest he was 6 feet 6 inches (198 cm)[26][27][28] and by the time of his autopsy he was 6 feet 4 inches (193 cm) tall and weighed 223 pounds (101 kg).[29]

Later years

Floyd returned to Houston from college in Kingsville, Texas, in 1995 and became an automotive customizer and played club basketball.[23][30] Beginning in 1994, he performed as a rapper using the stage name Big Floyd in the hip-hop group Screwed Up Click.[31][32][33][34]The New York Times described his deep-voiced rhymes as "purposeful", delivered in a slow-motion clip about "'choppin' blades' – driving cars with oversize rims – and his Third Ward pride."[6] The second rap group he was involved in was "Presidential Playas" and he worked on their album Block Party released in 2000.[35][36] An influential member of his community, Floyd was respected for his ability to relate with others in his environment based on a shared experience of hardships and setbacks, having served time in prison and living in a poverty-stricken project in Houston.[7] In a video addressing the youth in his neighborhood, Floyd reminds his audience that he has his own "shortcomings" and "flaws" and that he is not better than anyone else, but also expresses his disdain for the violence that was taking place in the community, and advises his neighbors to put down their weapons and remember that they are loved by him and God.[7]

Between 1997 and 2005, Floyd served eight jail terms on various charges, including drug possession, theft, and trespass.[6][15] In one of these cases the arresting officer was later investigated for a pattern of falsifying evidence, related to the Pecan Park raid, leading the District Attorney of Harris County, Texas, to request a posthumous pardon for Floyd in 2021.[37] In 2007, Floyd faced charges for aggravated robbery with a deadly weapon; according to investigators, he had entered an apartment by impersonating a water department worker and barging in with five other men, then held a pistol to a woman's stomach and searched for items to steal.[19][38][39] Floyd was arrested three months later during a traffic stop, and a seven-year-old victim of the robbery identified him from a photo array.[39] In 2009, Floyd was sentenced to five years in prison as part of a plea deal,[38][40][41] and was paroled in January 2013.[23] After his release, Floyd became more involved with Resurrection Houston, a Christian church and ministry, where he mentored young men and posted anti-violence videos to social media.[6][7][8][9] He delivered meals to senior citizens and volunteered with other projects, such as the Angel By Nature Foundation, a charity founded by rapper Trae tha Truth.[42] Later, Floyd became involved with a ministry that brought men from the Third Ward to Minnesota in a church-work program with drug rehabilitation and job placement services.[6] A friend of his acknowledged that Floyd "had made some mistakes that cost him some years of his life." but that he had been turning his life around through religion.[7]

In 2014, Floyd moved to Minneapolis to help rebuild his life and find work.[43][44] Soon after his arrival, he completed a 90-day rehabilitation program at the Turning Point program in north Minneapolis. Floyd expressed the need for a job and took up security work at Harbor Light Center, a Salvation Army homeless shelter.[39] He lost the job at Harbor Light and took several other jobs. Floyd hoped to earn a commercial driver's license to operate trucks. He passed the required drug test and administrators of the program felt his criminal past did not pose a problem, but he dropped out as his job at a nightclub made it difficult to attend morning classes, and he felt pressure to earn money. Floyd later moved to St. Louis Park and lived with former colleagues.[39] Floyd continued to battle drug addiction and went through periods of use and sobriety.[39]

In May 2019, Floyd was detained by Minneapolis police when an unlicensed car in which he was a passenger was pulled over in a traffic stop. Floyd was found with a bottle of pain pills. Officers handcuffed him and took him to the city's third police precinct station. Floyd told police he did not sell the pills and that they were related to his own addiction. When he appeared agitated, officers encouraged him to relax and helped calm him down, and they later called an ambulance as they grew worried about his condition. No charges were filed in connection with the incident.[39]

In 2019, Floyd worked in security at the El Nuevo Rodeo club, where police officer Derek Chauvin also worked off-duty as a security guard.[45] In 2020, Floyd was working part time as a security guard at the Conga Latin Bistro club, and began another job as a delivery driver. He lost the delivery driver job in January, after being cited for driving without a valid commercial license and for being involved in a minor crash. He was looking for another job when the COVID-19 pandemic hit Minnesota, and his personal financial situation worsened when the club closed in March due to pandemic rules.[39] Also in March, Floyd was hospitalized after overdosing on drugs.[46] In April, he contracted COVID-19, but recovered a few weeks later.[6][14]

Death

Main article: Murder of George Floyd
Memorial to Floyd two days after his murder

On May 25, 2020, police were called by a grocery store employee who suspected that Floyd had used a counterfeit bill. Floyd was sitting in a car with two other passengers. Police officers forcibly removed Floyd from the car and handcuffed him.[47]

Floyd was murdered by Derek Chauvin, a white Minneapolis police officer,[48] who pressed his knee to Floyd's neck for 9 minutes and 29 seconds[note 1][49] while Floyd was handcuffed face down in the street.[50][51][52] As seen in a witness's cellphone video,[6][53] two other officers further restrained Floyd and a fourth prevented onlookers from intervening[54]: 6:24 [55][56] as Floyd repeatedly pleaded that he could not breathe.[13] During the final two minutes[57] Floyd was motionless and had no pulse,[58][59] but Chauvin kept his knee on Floyd's neck and back even as emergency medical technicians arrived to treat Floyd.[60]: 7:21 

The medical examiner found that Floyd's heart stopped while he was being restrained and that his death was a homicide,[61][62] caused by "cardiopulmonary arrest complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint, and neck compression",[2] though fentanyl intoxication and recent methamphetamine use may have increased the likelihood of death.[63][64] A second autopsy, commissioned by Floyd's family,[65][66] also found his death to be a homicide, specifically citing asphyxia due to neck and back compression;[67][65][68] it ruled out that any underlying medical problems had contributed to Floyd's death,[69] and said that Floyd being able to speak while under Chauvin's knee does not mean he could breathe.[69]

On March 12, 2021, the Minneapolis city council approved a settlement of million to the Floyd family following a wrongful death lawsuit.[70]

Chauvin was fired and charged with second-degree murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter.[71][72] Chauvin was found guilty on all three murder and manslaughter charges on April 20, 2021.[53] On May 12, 2021, Hennepin County District Judge Peter Cahill allowed for the prosecution to seek a greater prison sentence for Chauvin after finding that he treated Floyd "with particular cruelty".[73] On June 25, Judge Cahill sentenced Chauvin to twenty-two and a half years in prison.[74]

Memorials and legacy

Main articles: George Floyd protests, George Floyd Square, Bust of George Floyd, and Statue of George Floyd
The carriage carrying Floyd's casket to his burial in Pearland, Texas, June 9

After Floyd's murder, protests were held globally against the use of excessive force by police officers against black suspects and lack of police accountability. Calls to both defund and abolish the police have been widespread.[75] Protests began in Minneapolis the day after his murder and developed in cities throughout all 50 U.S. states and internationally.[76][77] The day after Floyd's murder, all four officers involved were fired and, on May 29, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter charges were brought against Chauvin.[60]

Several memorial services were held. On June 4, 2020, a memorial service for Floyd took place in Minneapolis with Al Sharpton delivering the eulogy.[78] Services were planned in North Carolina with a public viewing and private service on June 6 and in Houston on June 8 and 9.[79] Floyd was buried next to his mother in Pearland, Texas.[80][81][82]

Colleges and universities which have created scholarships in Floyd's name included North Central University (which hosted a memorial service for Floyd),[83][84]Alabama State, Oakwood University,[85][86]Missouri State University, Southeast Missouri State, Ohio University,[87][88][89]Buffalo State College, Copper Mountain College,[90][91] and others.[92] Amid nationwide protests over Floyd's murder, Netflix CEO Reed Hastings and his wife Patty Quillin made a 0 million donation to be split equally among Morehouse College, Spelman College and the United Negro College Fund.[93] The donation was the largest ever made to historically black colleges and universities.[94]

Large area of sidewalk covered in flowers and other tributes beside a building with a mural painted on the wall
Tributes and mural outside Cup Foods, where Floyd was murdered

Street artists globally created murals honoring Floyd. Depictions included Floyd as a ghost in Minneapolis, as an angel in Houston, and as a saint weeping blood in Naples. A mural on the International Wall in Belfast commissioned by Festival of the People (Féile an Phobail) and Visit West Belfast (Fáilte Feirste Thiar) featured a large portrait of Floyd above a tableau showing Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck while the three other officers turn their backs and each covers his eyes, ears, or mouth in the manner of the Three Wise Monkeys ("See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil").[95][96][97] One Houston mural is on the side of Scott Food Mart in the Third Ward,[98] while the other is on the property of The Breakfast Klub restaurant in Midtown.[99] A childhood friend of Floyd's said that Floyd would never "have imagined that this is the tragic way people would know his name."[6]

A GoFundMe account to support Floyd's funeral costs and benefit his family broke the site's record for number of individual donations.[100]

Picture from a memorial erected in Floyd's honor

By June 6, murals had been created in many cities, including Manchester, Dallas, Miami, Idlib, Los Angeles, Nairobi, Oakland, Strombeek-Bever, Berlin, Pensacola, and La Mesa.[101][102] The mural in Manchester was defaced with graffiti. Manchester Police investigated the incident.[103] Beyond the creation of the mural, Floyd's murder has also brought attention to the presence of institutional racism within the United Kingdom.[104] Protest graffiti has also been put up throughout Los Angeles, offering phrases such as "I Can't Breathe", "Say Their Names", and others.[citation needed] The phrase "Black Lives Matter" has also been used often in the outpouring of protest regarding Floyd's murder.[105] The phrase has been especially popular on social media platforms.[106] Since Floyd's murder, there has also been a global outcry for memorials commemorating bigoted individuals to be demolished.[107]

A bill proposed by US Representative Sheila Jackson Lee, the George Floyd Law Enforcement Trust and Integrity Act, was designed to reduce police brutality and establish national policing standards and accreditations.[108][109] In addition to the work of lawmakers, there has been an outcry from leaders in varieties of fields. Researcher Temitope Oriola, author of 'How police departments can identify and oust killer cops', wrote the piece intending to prevent more deaths mirroring Floyd's.[110] Oxiris Barbot, former New York City Health Commissioner, wrote an article describing Floyd's murder as "collective moral injury" and compared it to "the sustained acuity of health inequities playing out in horrifying details through the COVID-19 pandemic."[111] Religious leaders have also been called upon to address violence taking place against black Americans.[112]

The length of time that Chauvin was initially believed to have had his knee on Floyd's neck, eight minutes 46 seconds, was widely commemorated as a "moment of silence" to honor Floyd.[113][114]

Floyd's murder was featured prominently in The Economist, with the magazine running an obituary, multiple articles, and numerous reader letters, ultimately making Floyd's legacy its June 13 cover story.[115] It wrote that his legacy "[is] the rich promise of social reform."[116]

In August 2020, musician John Mellencamp released the song "A Pawn in the White Man's Game" which was a re-working of Bob Dylan's 1964 song "Only a Pawn in Their Game" that reflected on the killing of Civil Rights activist Medger Evers. Mellencamp's version featured new lyrics that reflected the racial conflicts in the U.S. that followed in the wake of Floyd's murder. Mellencamp also released a video to YouTube which included a warning that it might be seen as "inappropriate for some viewers". The video featured footage of protesters and police clashing violently in 2020 and 1968. YouTube eventually removed the video claiming it violated their community guidelines.[117]

On September 18, 2020, the Minneapolis City Council approved designating the section of Chicago Avenue between 37th and 39th Streets as George Perry Floyd Jr. Place, with a marker at the intersection with 38th Street where the incident took place. The intersection had been the location of a makeshift memorial that emerged the day after his murder.[118]

On October 6, 2020, Amnesty International delivered a letter with one million signatures from around the world to the US Attorney General William Barr to demand justice for George Floyd. The human rights advocacy group demanded that the police officers involved in the murder of George Floyd be held accountable.[119] The NAACP, which has already published a criminal justice fact sheet, issued a statement voicing their support for the protests taking place demanding justice for George Floyd.[120][121]

On May 21, 2021, Bridgett Floyd gave a ,000 check from the George Floyd Memorial Foundation to Fayetteville State University in Fayetteville, North Carolina to be used for scholarships. On the same day, the city declared May 25 George Floyd Jr. Day.[122]

Personal life

Floyd was the oldest of five siblings and had five children, including two daughters (aged 6 and 22 at the time of his murder) and an adult son.[123][124][125][126][127] He also had two grandchildren.[13][14]

In August 2017, Floyd met his girlfriend Courteney Ross in Minneapolis. In early 2020, the two separated, but from March to early May, the couple stayed together every day.[46]

Change.org petition

After Floyd's murder, a petition was started on the public benefit corporation website, change.org asking for "Justice for George Floyd." The petition quickly gathered more signatures than any other petition than had ever been pushed on the site, amounting to roughly five million in the first few days.[128] The Associated Press reported that the petition was considered a "success" with the sentencing of Derek Chauvin. At the time that the petition was closed to new signers, it had attained close to twenty million signatures.[129][130]

See also

  • Trial of Derek Chauvin
  • Murder of George Floyd
  • George Floyd protests
  • Reactions to the murder of George Floyd
  • Lists of killings by law enforcement officers in the United States

Notes

  1. ^ 9:29 not 7:46

References

  1. ^ "Mr. George Floyd Jr. Obituary – Visitation & Funeral Information". Estes Funeral Chapel. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "George Floyd death homicide, official post-mortem declares". BBC News. June 2, 2020. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  3. ^ McGreal, Chris (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin found guilty of George Floyd's murder". The Guardian. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  4. ^ Bailey, Holly (April 8, 2021). "George Floyd died of low level of oxygen, medical expert testifies; Derek Chauvin kept knee on his neck 'majority of the time'". The Washington Post.
  5. ^ Lee, Jessica (June 12, 2020). "Investigating George Floyd's Criminal Record". Snopes.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Fernandez, Manny; Burch, Audra D. S. (April 20, 2021). "George Floyd, From 'I Want to Touch the World' to 'I Can't Breathe'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e Henao, Luis Andres; Merchant, Nomaan; Lozano, Juan; Geller, Adam (June 11, 2020). "A long look at the complicated life of George Floyd". chicagotribune.com. Associated Press. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d e "George Floyd, the man whose death sparked US unrest". BBC News. May 31, 2020. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020. Growing up a gifted athlete standing at six feet six inches, friends who knew Floyd as a teenager described him as a "gentle giant" who shone on the field
  9. ^ a b Shellnutt, Kate (June 5, 2020). "George Floyd Left a Gospel Legacy in Houston". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  10. ^ Mike Hayes, Melissa Macaya, Meg Wagner and Veronica Rocha (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin guilty in death of George Floyd: Live updates". CNN. Retrieved April 20, 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ "Derek Chauvin sentenced to 22.5 years in prison for the murder of George Floyd". CNN. June 25, 2021. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  12. ^ Xiong, Chao (May 13, 2021). "State trial postponed to March 2022 for ex-officers charged with aiding and abetting murder in George Floyd death". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d Richmond, Todd (May 28, 2020). "Who was George Floyd? Unemployed due to coronavirus, he'd moved to Minneapolis for a fresh start". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  14. ^ a b c Vagianos, Alanna (June 9, 2020). "'He's Gonna Change The World': George Floyd's Family Remembers The Man They Lost". HuffPost. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  15. ^ a b c Jervis, Rick (June 9, 2020). "'George Floyd changed the world': Public viewing in Houston honors the man behind the social justice movement". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  16. ^ R. Hernández, Arelis; Martin, Brittney; Iati, Marisa; Beachum, Lateshia (June 10, 2020). "'Fight for my brother.' As George Floyd is laid to rest, his family implores the nation to continue quest for justice". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  17. ^ Olorunnipa, Toluse; Witte, Griff (2020). "Injustice in life and oppression in death: How systemic racism shaped George Floyd's life and hobbled his ambition". Washington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2021. (subscription required)
  18. ^ a b Eric Levenson, Gregory Lemos and Amir Vera (June 9, 2020). "The Rev. Al Sharpton remembers George Floyd as an 'ordinary brother' who changed the world". CNN. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  19. ^ a b Henao, Luis Andres; Merchant, Nomaan; Lozano, Juan; Geller, Adam (June 10, 2020). "For George Floyd, a complicated life and a notorious death". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 14, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  20. ^ Shaw, Rissa (May 30, 2020). "George Floyd's former teammate wants him remembered as more than a news story". KWTX. ... met Floyd in the sixth grade at James D. Ryan Middle School in the Third Ward community of Houston.
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  22. ^ Holton, Jennifer (May 29, 2020). "'A good guy:' College classmate, coach remember George Floyd". WTVT. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
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Further reading

  • Barbot, Oxiris (July 2, 2020). "George Floyd and Our Collective Moral Injury". American Journal of Public Health. 110 (9): 1253. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305850. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 7427243. PMID 32614647.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Floyd.
video iconExternal video George Floyd Memorial Service in Minneapolis, June 4, 2020, C-SPANvideo iconGeorge Floyd Funeral Service in Houston, June 9, 2020, C-SPAN
  • George Floyd at IMDb
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Floyd&oldid=1060155964"

Page 2

American rapper from Houston, TX
For the song, see 3-2 (song). For the academic program, see 3-2 engineering.
3-2
Birth nameChristopher Juel BarriereAlso known asMr 3-2, Tre Deuce, Fat Domino, Tha G-O-V, Pimpin Chris, Lord Tre Duece, Da Boss ManBorn(1972-07-11)July 11, 1972
Houston, Texas, U.S.DiedNovember 10, 2016(2016-11-10) (aged 44)
Houston, Texas, U.S.GenresHip hopOccupation(s)RapperYears active1991–2016Labels
  • Rap-A-Lot Records
  • N Yo Face Records
  • Street Game Records
  • Down South Records
Associated acts
  • Big Mike
  • Big Mello
  • Blac Monks
  • Screwed Up Click
  • UGK
  • Geto Boys
  • Big Hawk
  • Lil' O
  • Big Moe
  • South Park Mexican
  • Lil' Keke
  • Snoop Dogg
  • Timebomb
Musical artist

Christopher Juel Barriere (July 11, 1972 – November 10, 2016),[1] professionally known as 3-2, was an American rapper from Houston, Texas. He was a member of southern hip hop groups Convicts, Blac Monks, Southside Playaz and Screwed Up Click. He achieved success by his time with Rap-A-Lot Records. Barriere was fatally shot in the head at a gas station in Houston.[2]

Discography

Studio albums

Title Release Peak chart positions
US
R&B
[3]
US
Heat
[4]
The Wicked Buddah Baby
  • Released: 1996
  • Label: Rap-A-Lot, Noo Trybe
28 13
The Governor
  • Released: 2001
  • Label: N Yo Face
On Probation
  • Released: 2005
  • Label: Street Game
Over the Law
  • Released: 2005
  • Label: Street Game
Family Ties
  • Released: 2006
  • Label: Street Game, Pham Ent.
Fatt Domino
  • Released: 2008
  • Label: Down South
Verbal Assault
  • Released: 2009
  • Label: Playamade Productions

Collaboration albums

Title Release Peak chart positions
US
R&B
[5][6][7]
Convicts with Convicts
  • Released: 1991
  • Label: Rap-A-Lot
52
Secrets of the Hidden Temple with Blac Monks
  • Released: 1994
  • Label: Rap-A-Lot
65
No Mercy with Blac Monks
  • Released: 1998
  • Label: Rap-A-Lot
74
You Gottus Fuxxed Up with Southside Playaz
  • Released: 1998
  • Label: Laftex Records
Street Game with Southside Playaz
  • Released: 2000
  • Label: Laftex Records
91
Str'8 Drop with Timebomb
  • Released: 2012
  • Label: Timebomb Entertainment
"—" denotes a recording that did not chart.

Guest appearances

List of non-single guest appearances, with other performing artists, showing year released and album name
Title Year Other artist(s) Album
"South Park Coalition" 1991 The Terrorists (Dope E, Egypt E), Ganksta N-I-P, Point Blank Terror Strikes: Always Bizness, Never Personal
"Aggravated" 1992 Point Blank Prone to Bad Dreams
"Buck Em Down" 1993 DMG, Scarface, Big Mike, 5th Ward Boyz, 2 Low Rigormortiz
"Da Hood" 2 Low Funky Lil Brotha
"Straight Gangstaism" Geto Boys Till Death Do Us Part
"Bring It On" Geto Boys, 5th Ward Boyz, Ganksta N-I-P, Seagram, Odd Squad, Big Mello, DMG
"Gang Stories" 1994 South Central Cartel, Big Mike 'N Gatz We Truss
"Stoned Junkee" UGK Super Tight
"Pussy Got Me Dizzy"
"Came Na Gedown" Odd Squad, Scarface, 2 Low Fadanuf Fa Erybody!!
"Fire" Big Mike Somethin' Serious
"Pass da Dank" 1995 South Central Cartel, Ant Banks, Spice 1, Mr. Wesside Murder Squad Nationwide
"One Day" 1996 UGK, Ronnie Spencer Ridin' Dirty
"Touched" UGK
"Something About the Southside" 1997 Lil' Keke Don't Mess wit Texas
"Jus Ride" 1998 Fat Pat, Double D, Pymp Tyte Throwed in da Game
"2 Real" Scarface, UGK My Homies
"Turnin' Lane (Remix)" Dead End Alliance, Lil' Keke, Mike D Screwed for Life
"Money & Da Power" Dead End Alliance, E.S.G.
"Nineteen Ninety Grind" 1999 C-Note, Big Kool Third Coast Born
"Constant Struggle" Sean Pymp, Tyte Eyes, D-Reck, Ronnie Spencer All N' Yo Face
"Outta Control" Big Steve, Big Mello My Testimony and Done Deal
"Lock N Da Game" Lil' Troy Sittin' Fat Down South
"Playas Get Chose" Lil' O, Big Moe, Big Hawk, Slikk Breeze Blood Money and Da Fat Rat wit da Cheeze
"World Wide Playaz" Lil' Keke, South Park Mexican It Was All a Dream
"Ball'n-Parlay" Big Pokey, Big Moe, Lil' Keke Hardest Pit in the Litter
"Gage Play" Big Pokey, Big Rue
"Can't Stop" 2000 Dat Boy Grace From Crumbs to Bricks
"Keep My Name out Yo Mouth" Big Pokey, Will-Lean, Mike D, Mafia Mike, Chris Ward D-Game 2000
"Choo Choo" Lil' O, Mike D, Big Hawk Da Fat Rat wit da Cheeze
"High With Tha Blanksta" Point Blank, Z-Ro, Big Moe, C-Loc, Lil Flex, PSK-13 Bad Newz Travels Fast
"What's Happen" Big Steve, Big Hawk Back To Back Hits and Under Hawk's Wings
"Hustling All I Can Do" Z-Ro, Point Blank Z-Ro vs. the World
"Love 2 Make $" 2001 Lil' Keke Peepin' in My Window
"Life" 2002 Z-Ro Screwed Up Click Representa
"It's About to Go Down" Big Moe, Lil' Flip, Noke D, D Gotti, Toon Purple World
"Move Around" 2003 Big Moe, Noke D Moe Life...
"Playas Still Get Chose" Lil' O Food on tha Table
"Screwed Up Click" 2004 Trae tha Truth, Big Hawk Same Thing Different Day
"The Way I Live" 2008 Big Pokey, Big Mike Evacuation Notice
"Kill" Lil' Keke, Big Hawk, Kevo Still Wreckin'
"First Class" Lil' Keke, Big Hawk, Big Pokey
"It's Like That" 2011 Dat Boy Grace Rollin N Groovin
"Don't Fuxx Wit.."
"Time Fa Change"
"These Streets" 2021 Z-Ro, Mike D 2 The Hardway

See also

  • List of murdered hip hop musicians

References

  1. ^ "Christopher Barriere Obituary - Houston, Texas - Tributes.com". www.tributes.com. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  2. ^ "Houston Rapper Mr. 3-2 Fatally Shot had been involved in a fistfight at a Southwest Houston gas station which ended with him being shot in the back of the head. 39 year old Vincent Depaul Stredic has been charged with Bararriere's death. The suspect was witnessed, pulling out a shotgun from his trunk, which he used to shoot at Mr. 3-2". Complex. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  3. ^ "3-2 Chart History". Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  4. ^ "3-2 Chart History". Heatseekers Albums. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  5. ^ "Convicts Convicts Chart History". Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. Archived from the original on May 15, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  6. ^ "Blac Monks Chart History". Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. Archived from the original on May 22, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  7. ^ "Southside Playaz Chart History". Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. Retrieved May 5, 2018.

External links

  • 3-2 discography at Discogs
  • Christopher Juel "Mr. 3-2" Barriere at Find a Grave
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